This is the ninth in the CRC for Aboriginal Health’s Discussion Paper Series. Although this discussion paper has been developed for people working within health practice, as it explains, the wholistic philosophical basis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture that encompasses wellbeing has applications in every area of engagement with Indigenous Australian people. This literature review draws on a diverse range of sources including history, anthropology, sociology, literature, biography and autobiography, government reports, websites, and the writings of health and social and emotional wellbeing practitioners, describing their approaches to the implementation of programs.