Objective: To examine cancer incidence and mortality in Indigenous Queenslanders.

Design, setting and patients: Assessment of indirectly standardised incidence and mortality ratios for Indigenous Australians in Queensland diagnosed with cancer from 1997 to 2006, compared with the total Queensland population.

Main outcome measures: Standardised incidence and mortality ratios.

Results: Compared with the total Queensland population, Indigenous Queenslanders had a lower overall incidence of cancer (standardised incidence ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.75–0.82), but a higher incidence of some of the more fatal cancer types. Overall cancer mortality was higher (standardised mortality ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.28–1.45) and similar to rates for Indigenous people in other Australian states.

Conclusion: Cancer rates for Indigenous Queenslanders, a mostly urbanised population, are similar to rates for Indigenous Australians mostly living in remote areas.