This paper provides a general overview of the literature investigating the nexus between education and health; discussing the relationship between these domains at individual, family and community levels. We then briefly examine the programme and research implications of such a framework for interventions aimed at improving education and health, with specific reference to young Indigenous Australians. We find that while education and health are inextricably linked, throughout the life course and at different levels of influence, there is less empirical work exploring this relationship in an Indigenous context. Given the gravity of literacy and numeracy failure rates in school-based education and its potential impact on Indigenous health, we assert an urgent case for rigorous research into interventions that address the barriers to effectiveness in implementing quality educational experiences and opportunities for Indigenous children.