This article provides an overview of the health of Indigenous people across the globe. It begins by exploring the characteristics and varying definitions of Aboriginal people. In the sections that follow, we provide an overview of Indigenous health inequalities, noting the problems with data quality and the difficulties in capturing Indigenous notions of health. The different explanatory approaches to Indigenous health are briefly surveyed and some consideration is also given to strategies to promote health gain. Finally, we return to consider Indigenous health in a global context with reference to issues of Indigenous rights.